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Showing posts with label News. Show all posts
Showing posts with label News. Show all posts

Monday, 18 March 2019

March 18, 2019

Types of firewall and possible attacks

 No one can deny the fact that the dynamic rise of the Internet has brought the world closer. But at the same time, it has left us with different kinds of security threats. To ensure the confidentiality and integrity of valuable information of a corporate network from the outside attacks, we must have some robust mechanism. This is where the Firewall comes into picture.

It can be compared with a security guard standing at the entrance of a minister’s home. He keeps an eye on everyone and physically checks every person who wishes to enter the house. It won’t allow a person to enter if he/she is carrying a harmful object like a knife, gun etc. Similarly, even if the person doesn’t possess any banned object but appears suspicious, the guard can still prevent that person’s entry.

The firewall acts as a guard. It guards a corporate network acting as a shield between the inside network and the outside world. All the traffic in either direction must pass through the firewall. It then decides whether the traffic is allowed to flow or not. The firewall can be implemented as hardware and software, or a combination of both.

Types of Firewalls:

  1. Packet Filters –
    It works in the network layer of the OSI Model. It applies a set of rules (based on the contents of IP and transport header fields) on each packet and based on the outcome, decides to either forward or discard the packet.

    For example, a rule could specify to block all incoming traffic from a certain IP address or disallow all traffic that uses UDP protocol. If there is no match with any predefined rules, it will take default action. The default action can be to ‘discard all packets’ or to ‘accept all packets’.

    Security threats to Packet Filters:

    1. IP address Spoofing:
      In this kind of attack, an intruder from the outside tries to send a packet towards the internal corporate network with the source IP address set equal to one of the IP address of internal users.
      Firewall can defeat this attack if it discards all the packets that arrive at the incoming side of the firewall, with source IP equal to one of the internal IPs.
    2. Source Routing Attacks:
      In this kind of attack, the attacker specifies the route to be taken by the packet with a hope to fool the firewall.
      Firewall can defeat this attack if it discards all the packets that use the option of source routing aka path addressing.
    3. Tiny Fragment Attacks:
      Many times, the size of the IP packet is greater than the maximum size allowed by the underlying network such as Ethernet, Token Ring etc. In such cases, the packet needs to be fragmented, so that it can be carried further. The attacker uses this characteristic of TCP/IP protocol. In this kind of attack, the attacker intentionally creates fragments of the original packet and send it to fool the firewall.
      Firewall can defeat this attack if it discards all the packets which use the TCP protocol and is fragmented. Dynamic Packet Filters allow incoming TCP packets only if they are responses to the outgoing TCP packets.
  2. Application Gateways –
    It is also known as Proxy server. It works as follows:
    1. Step-1: User contacts the application gateway using a TCP/IP application such as HTTP.
    2. Step-2: The application gateway asks about the remote host with which the user wants to establish a connection. It also asks for the user id and password that is required to access the services of the application gateway.
    3. Step-3: After verifying the authenticity of the user, the application gateway accesses the remote host on behalf of the user to deliver the packets.
  3. Stateful Inspection Firewalls –
    It is also known as ‘Dynamic Packet Filters’. It keeps track of the state of active connections and uses this information to decide which packets to allow through it, i.e., it adapts itself to the current exchange of information, unlike the normal packet filters/stateless packet filters, which have hardcoded routing rules.
  4. Circuit-Level Gateways –
    It works at the session layer of the OSI Model. It is the advanced variation of Application Gateway. It acts as a virtual connection between the remote host and the internal users by creating a new connection between itself and the remote host. It also changes the source IP address in the packet and puts its own address at the place of source IP address of the packet from end users. This way, the IP addresses of the internal users are hidden and secured from the outside world.

Friday, 10 November 2017

November 10, 2017

[Class 12] Google Open Sources Abseil, a Collection of C++ and Python Utilities

Google has made available a number of C++ libraries they use internally for many of their projects. Python ones are to follow soon.

Google has developed Abseil over a decade in order to support the needs of their programmers working on various projects including Protocol Buffers, gRPC, or TensorFlow. Google even says that Abseil is:
a collection of libraries drawn from the most fundamental pieces of Google’s internal codebase. These libraries are the nuts-and-bolts that underpin almost everything that Google runs. Bits and pieces of these APIs are embedded in most of our open source projects, and now we have brought them together into one comprehensive project.
Abseil encompasses the most basic building blocks of Google’s codebase: code that is production tested and will be fully maintained for years to come.
Abseil includes abstractions that initially were not part of C++14 or C++17, but some of them ended up being included in the standard. For example, Google had a type called StringPiece.Later, C++ 17 added a similar type called std::string_view, and Google has reworked StringPiece into absl::string_view to have the same API as the newly C++ 17 type. Under the hood, Abseil’s string_view defaults to the standard implementation if the developer is using C++ 17 or to Google’s implementation if using a previous C++ version.
The benefit of using Abseil is having access to C++ features not existing in the standard yet, with the promise that Google will rework them to default to the standard when included in it. Google encourages developers to adopt Abseil, mentioning that they have over 250M lines of C++ code that uses it and almost every project builds from the head. That means Abseil is very used by Google and constantly maintained to keep up with the needs of their projects. 
Abseil includes the following libraries:
  • base - initialization and other basic code.
  • algorithm - additions to the C++ <algorithm> library and container-based versions of such algorithms.
  • container - additional STL-style containers.
  • debugging – debugging library used to check for leaks.
  • memory – includes C++11-compatible versions of std::make_unique()and memory management.
  • meta – includes C++11-compatible versions of type checks available within C++14 and C++17 versions of the C++ <type_traits> library.
  • numeric - C++11-compatible 128-bit integers.
  • strings – various string utilities.
  • synchronization - concurrency primitives and synchronization abstractions.
  • time - abstractions for working with absolute points in time, time durations, and time zones.
  • types - non-container utility types.
The code has been licensed under the Apache license and it is available on GitHub. A Python version of the library is to be made available soon. 

Thursday, 24 March 2016

March 24, 2016

WebAssembly, The Binary Format For The Web Is Under Development

Web has become much more than a bunch of HTML sites. With the increaing number of Web Developers, web technology has also developed. Web applications are also being developed the same way we develop regular applications. But unfortunately web hasn't got any core programming languages. JavaScript has unknowingly become the assembly language of web. But it was not made for this pupose, so it cannot perform efficiently.

Google, Microsoft, Mozilla and some other companies have tied up to create a new programming language. They call this language "the bytecode of the Web" and have named it WebAssembly. The main purpose of this project is to bring a programming language that could make the web much faster. Mozilla's asm.js has tried to do the same but is not as efficient as WebAssembly. The team is going to utilize asm.js to make the new language.

WebAssembly will help developers to port external codes such as C/C++ to the web. Initailly WebAssembly will be treated as a part of JavaScript but later on both will be seperated.
March 24, 2016

Maggi Has Been Banned In Several States

Nestle, one of India's biggest processed food makers, slid to the lowest in a month after a complaint was filed in a local court over lead levels in its Maggi instant noodles.

Nestle's Noodles, Maggi is banned in several states of India because of excessive usage of lead and MSG (Monosodium Glutamate), a flavour enhancer in their "Masala" mixture.
An officer of the UP Food Safety and Drug Administration ordered tests on Maggi Noodles in the Gorakhpur Laboratory and the Central Food Laboratory in Kolkata. Both tests found MSG content. Kolkata Lab found 17.2 parts per million, much more than the permitted 2.5 parts per million limit.
UP FDA then filed a case in Barabanki court, against Nestle. On Monday food minister Ram Vilas Paswan orderd a nation-wide test. Not only MSG and Lead but all parameters would be tested.

Why do noodles contain MSG?

MSG tricks our mind to think that the food we are eating is tasty. In other words it simply makes food tastier. It is widely used in food and is generally considered safe. Its excessive usage may cause some reactions in our body but researchers have not yet found any definitive evidence.
Lead content mostly comes from other objects such as the packet, water or the curly part.

Nestle's Response

Nestle said on May 21 “We do not add MSG to our Maggi noodles sold in India and this is stated on the concerned product. However, we use hydrolysed groundnut protein, onion powder and wheat flour to make Maggi noodles sold in India, which all contain glutamate. We believe that the authorities’ tests may have detected glutamate, which occurs naturally in many foods.” FSSAI agreed to this statement that their tests recognise glutomic acid which is content of many safe edibles.
They also said they are regularly testing the MSG levels in their noodles. They claim that their tests have found nothing.
A case has been filed against Nestle Managing Director, Mohan Gupta, its joint director, Shabab Alam and the three celebrities Amitabh Bachchan, Madhuri Dixit and Preity Zinta by a lawyer, Sudhir Kumar Ojha. He said that he fell ill after eating Maggi. These celebrities have been included in this complaint because they used their popularity for commercialising a false product.

Friday, 11 March 2016

March 11, 2016

GPA Weighted Scales , Learn GPA in a easy way

Most students think a lot about GPA in high school. There’s no doubt that GPA is one of the most important pieces of information colleges will consider in your application. However, it can vary drastically in the way it’s calculated at different schools. Some high schools use unweighted GPAs and some use weighted GPAs.

What is GPA? 

In simple , GPA stands for Grade point average. Bytheway if you still wanted to know about GPA checkout this YouTube Video. 


Weighted GPA
Weighted GPA is often employed by high schools to better represent students’ academic accomplishments. Weighted GPA takes into account course difficulty rather than providing the same letter grade to GPA conversion for every student. Usually, weighted GPA is measured on a scale of 0 to 5.0, Weighted GPA Scale And gpa weighted scale , although some scales go up higher. An A in an Honors or AP class may translate into a 5.0 weighted GPA, while an A in a low level class will give you a 4.0 weighted GPA. Many schools also have mid-level classes where the highest weighted GPA you can earn is a 4.5.

Calculate GPA Weight On GPA Weighted Scale

So with all this in mind, how do you calculate your weighted GPA? It’s pretty easy if you know your grades so far in high school and the levels of classes you’ve taken. The simplest way to translate grades into weighted GPA is to follow the gpa weighted scale for low level classes, add 0.5 to the unweighted scale for mid level classes, and add 1.0 to the unweighted scale for high level classes.

Here’s the gpa weighted scale for reference:
Grade GPA
A+ 4.0
A 4.0
A- 3.7
B+ 3.3
B 3.0
B- 2.7
C+ 2.3
C 2.0
C- 1.7
D+ 1.3
D 1.0
F 0.0

First Semester Freshman Year

Class Level Letter Grade Unweighted GPA Weighted GPA
1 Mid B+ 3.3 3.8
2 Mid B 3.0 3.5
3 Mid B 3.0 3.5
4 Low A 4.0 4.0
5 Low A- 3.7 3.7
The weighted GPA for this semester is the average of all the numbers in the last column. Your first semester freshman year weighted GPA would be a 3.7. For the second semester, let’s say you continued to take the same level classes but improved your grades.

Second Semester Freshman Year

Class Level Letter Grade Unweighted GPA Weighted GPA
1 Mid A 4.0 4.5
2 Mid B+ 3.3 3.8
3 Mid B+ 3.3 3.8
4 Low A 4.0 4.0
5 Low A 4.0 4.0

    • Weighted Scales GPA
    • GPA weighting scales
    • GPA difference between them 
    • gpa weight scale 
  • Now that you know about weighted GPA
Weighted GPA is a way for high schools to create a measure of academic achievement that takes into account the difficult of a student’s course load and not just his or her grades alone. On a weighted GPA scale, GPAs typically range from 0 to 5.0, with a 5.0 representing all As in the highest level classes. Weighted GPA is important to take into consideration because it gives you a way to gage your progress throughout high school based on both grades AND willingness to take on intellectual challenges.

Friday, 18 December 2015

December 18, 2015

8 Best Questions Asked To Sundar Pichai At Q&A at SRCC Collage

The much-talked about Q&A session of Google's CEO Sundar Pichai at Delhi University's SRCC college concluded
with what is usually termed as the best part of celebrity interviews -- a rapid fire session.

The India-born Pichai faced a flurry of questions from the host Harsha Bhogle who tried to keep the CEO on his toes with his posers.

Here's the very-best from Google CEO
Pichai's rapidfire round:

Harsha Bhogle: When did you buy your first phone?

Sundar Pichai: Smartphone?

Harsha Bhogle: Any phone, but not the one in Chennai.

Sundar Pichai: Motorola Star TAC in 1995, first smartphone in 2006.

Harsha Bhogle: How many smartphones do you have?

Sundar Pichai: In my house, I have 20-30

Harsha Bhogle: Should coding be made

Sundar Pichai: I don't think it should be
made compulsory but it should strongly be encouraged.

Harsha Bhogle: What was your first
software project?

Sundar Pichai: A rudimentary version of
chess and games like that.

Harsha Bhogle: How much did you score in Class 12?

Sundar Pichai: Not enough to get into

Harsha Bhogle: How important are Class 12 grades?

Sundar Pichai: There are too many teachers in the room for me to answer this question.

Harsha Bhogle: Where do you see Google in next 30 years?

Sundar Pichai: I want to make sure that in the next 30 years we are still working on problems which really work for people on a day to day basis, hopefully for all of
humanity in a profound way.

• Sundar Pichai Class 12 marks
• Sundar Pichai Class 10 Grades 
• Google CEO Education Qualifications
• Sundar Pichai Class 12 Science Marks
• Sundar Pichai Internship At Google
• Sundar Pichai 's Offer to indian students .  

Friday, 13 November 2015

November 13, 2015

Transparent, Game of Thrones Win Creative Arts Emmys

Transparent, American Horror Story: Freak Show and Game of Thrones were the big winners at the Creative Arts Emmy Awards, which were handed out Saturday and recognise mostly technical achievements in television. 

Among the top prize recipients were Bradley Whitford, who won Outstanding Guest Actor in a Comedy for his role in Transparent, and Margo Martindale, who won Outstanding Guest Actress in a Drama for The Americans. Joan Cusack (Shameless) and Reg E. Cathey (House of Cards) also won for guest-starring roles. 

Veep and Game of Thrones won Outstanding Casting awards in the comedy and drama categories, while Olive Kitteridge won the casting prize for Limited Series, Movie or Special.

American Horror Story: Freak Show was honored for Outstanding Makeup for a
Limited Series or Movie (in both the
Prosthetic and Non-Prosthetic categories), while Game of Thrones won the makeup award for a single-camera series. 

The shows also both won awards for visual effects, while Transparent and Downton Abbey both won costume awards. Jane Lynch won the award for Outstanding Host of a Reality Show, for Hollywood Game Night, while Shark Tank and Deadliest Catch were named Outstanding Structured and Unstructured Reality Shows, respectively.

Sunday, 5 July 2015

July 05, 2015

Alia Bhatt want to play the game of Link-ups with the media

How sweet and gullible the Highway actress Alia Bhatt may look but she can not be easily taken for a ride. 

The pretty actress recently made it clear that she protects her privacy staunchly and added she would rather not talk about it publicly as she is very particular about keeping it private. 

The actress, 23, who is allegedly going around with her debut film co-star, the tall and good looking Sidharth Malhotra said that the present situation is more like a game that she would play with the media. 

The actress who hurt her shoulder during the shoot of her upcoming film Kapoor And Sons in Coonor said that people are so hell-bent on knowing about her personal life but she says she would rather keep mum as she is hardly troubled by what people think. 

Looks as if the ways of the industry have made the girl quite astute.
July 05, 2015

Salman Khan's heartfelt gesture for singer Adnan Sami

No one calls Salman a big-hearted man for nothing. The superstar apparently took efforts and went out of his way to put on board his pal Adnan Sami for a song in Bajrangi Bhaijaan.

Reportedly the Bodyguard actor Salman's wanted Adnan Sami to do the special Dargah song as the star felt that it will have a stronger effect if the singer acts and sings in the video. 

Apparently Adnan will be seen making a guest appearance in it. The 45 year old singer Adnan Sami will be seen
singing for a special Dargah song "Bhardo Jholi Meri" which is shot in Ashmuqam Dargah of Kashmir. 

Really Salman, you are indeed a true friend. Who would not want a friend like Salman!

Sunday, 3 May 2015

May 03, 2015

Hema Malini And Dharmendra Celebrating their 35th Anniversary

Actress-politician Hema Malini, gushing about the 35 successful years of her marriage to actor husband Dharmendra, says love is togetherness. 

The star couple celebrated a quiet and relaxing anniversary eve last evening all by themselves at home. 

She tweeted:
Good morning! Dharamji & I celebrated a
wonderfully relaxing Wedding Anniversary
eve all by ourselves after a long time.Love

Hema, 66, posted two pictures of the duo from the evening, on Twitter. While the first picture shows couple getting ready to cut two anniversary cakes, the second and more adorable one is of a
loving Dharmendra planting a kiss on his wife's head, as she is smiling at the camera.

The couple, who romanced each other in films like Seeta Aur Geeta, Dreamgirl and The Burning Train, got married in 1980. They have two daughters actress Esha Deol and Ahana Deol.

Friday, 10 April 2015

April 10, 2015

Detective Byomkesh Bakshy : 1st Wednesday Box Office Collections

Detective Byomkesh Bakshy remained low over the sixth day too. Overall the weekdays have shown a dull collection. 

The Sushant Singh Rajput's Flim collected 1.50 crores on its first Wednesday and now stands with a total collection of 18.75 crores at the domestic box office.

Swastika Mukherjee and Sushant Singh Rajput in a still from movie 

‘Detective Byomkesh Bakshi’ The film slowed down in the weekdays and is expected to make a collection of 20 crores plus in the first week. 

One of the main reasons for Byomkesh Bakshy’s low performance is the Hollywood release Fast and Furious. 

Moreover, this week has Ek Paheli Leela, Broken Horses and Dharam Sankat Mein releasing which will occupy a lot of screens and hence the film hardly has any chance to add more moolah over the second weekend.

Friday, 3 April 2015

April 03, 2015

Hindi Exam Cancelled By Bihar Board

Subject’s question paper was mistakenly
distributed at an examination centre in Purnia
district on Saturday 

The Bihar School Examination Board has cancelled
the matriculation examination for Hindi Paper-I that
was scheduled for Monday. The decision was taken after the subject’s question
paper was mistakenly distributed at an examination
centre in Purnia district on Saturday.

 “The first paper of Hindi for those who opted for it
as their second Indian language has been

 The second paper of Hindi will be held
as per schedule. The first papers of subjects like
Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian and Bhojpuri will also be
held as per schedule,” 

Principal Secretary (Education) Rajneesh Kumar Mahajan said on
Sunday. Mr. Mahajan added that the packets of Hindi Paper-
I questions were opened and distributed by the
invigilators at Surya Narayan Singh Yadav Inter
College in Purnia to Urdu examinees. 

Some of the
examinees even wrote their papers.