Class 10 Acids,Bases And Salts Notes For SA 1 2016-17

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GIST OF THE LESSON
1) Acids are sour in taste, turn blue litmus red, and dissolve in water to release H
+
ions e.g.
HCl, H2SO4, HNO3etc.
2) Bases are bitter in taste, have soapy touch, turn red litmus blue and give hydroxide ions
in solution.
e.g. NaOH, KOH etc.
3) A salt is a compound which is formed by neutralization reaction between an acid and base.
e.g. sodium chloride.
3) Indicators –Indicators are substances which indicate the acidic or basic nature of the
solution
by their colour change.
The colour of some acid – base indicators in acidic and basic medium are given below
.

Sr. No.
INDICATORS
COLOUR IN ACIDIC MEDIUM
COLOUR IN BASIC MEDIUM
1
Litmus solution
Red
Blue
2
Methyl Orange
Pink
Orange
3
Phenolphthalein
Colourless
Pink
4
Methyl red
Yellow
Red


5) Chemical properties of acids:
i)Acids react with active metals to give hydrogen gas.
Zn + H2SO4ZnSO4+ H2
ii)Acids react with metal carbonate and metal hydrogen carbonate to give carbon dioxide.
NaHCO3+HCl NaCl + H2O + CO2
iii)Acids react with bases to give salt and water. This reaction is called as neutralization
reaction.
NaOH + HCl NaCl +H2O
iv)Acids react with metals oxides to give salt and water.
CuO + H2SO4 CuSO4 + H2O
6) Chemical properties of Bases:
i) Reaction with Metals -Certain reactive metals such as Zinc, Aluminium, and Tin react with
alkali solutions on heating and hydrogen gas is evolved.
2NaOH + Zn Na2ZnO2+H2
16
ii) Reaction with acids -Bases react with acids to form salt and water.
KOH +HCl KCl +H2O
iii) Reaction with Non -metallic oxides –These oxides are generally acidic in nature. They
react with bases to form salt and water.
2NaOH + CO2Na2CO3+ H2O
7) PH Scale:The concentration of hydrogen ion in solution is expressed in terms of pH. The pH
of a solution is defined as the negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration in moles per
liter.
pH = - log [H
+
]
For water or neutral solutions, pH = 7 ; For acidic solutions, pH < 7; For basic solutions, pH > 7
8) Some Important Chemical Compounds:
a)Common Salt (NaCl)
Sodium chloride is known as common salt. Its main source is sea water. It is also exists in the
form of rocks and is called rock salt.
Common salt is an important component of our food. It is also used for preparing sodium
hydroxide, baking soda, washing soda etc.
b)Sodium Hydroxide or Caustic Soda (NaOH)
It is prepared by passing electricity through an aqueous solution of sodium chloride also known
as brine.
2NaCl (aq) + 2 H2O (l) 2NaOH (aq) + Cl2 (g) + H2 (g)
This process is known as chlor-alkali process.
Properties:
1. It is white translucent solid.
2. Crystals of sodium hydroxide are deliquescent.
3. It is readily soluble in water and gives strong alkaline solution.
c) Bleaching Powder (CaOCl2)
Its chemical name is calcium oxychloride. It is prepared by passing chlorine gas through dry
slaked lime.
Ca (OH) 2+ Cl2CaOCl2+ H2O
Uses –
1. For bleaching cotton and linen in textile industry and wood pulp in paper industry
2. For disinfecting drinking water.
d) Baking Soda (NaHCO3)
Chemical name is Sodium hydrogen carbonate.
It is prepared by passing CO2gas through brine solution saturated with ammonia.
NaCl + H2O +CO2+NH3NH4Cl + NaHCO3
Properties:
1. It is white crystalline solid and sparingly soluble in water at room temperature.
2. On heating it decomposes to give sodium carbonate and carbon dioxide.
3. It reacts with acids to give carbon dioxide gas.
4. It aqueous solution is weak alkaline due to hydrolysis.
Uses:
1. It is used in soda – acid fire extinguisher.
17
2. It acts as mild antiseptic and antacid.
3. It is used as a component of baking powder. In addition to sodium hydrogen carbonate baking
soda contains tartaric acid.
e) Washing Soda (Na2CO3.10 H2O)
Chemical name is sodium carbonate decahydrate.
It is prepared by heating baking soda. Recrystallisation of sodium carbonate gives washing soda.
2NaHCO3Na2CO3+H2O +CO2
Na2CO3+10 H2O  Na2CO3. 10 H2O
Uses:
1. It is used for removing permanent hardness of water.
2. It is used in glass, soap and paper industries.
3. It can be used as a cleaning agent for domestic purposes.
f) Plaster of Paris (CaSO4.1/2H2O)
Its chemical name is calcium sulphate hemihydrates. It is obtained by heating Gypsum upto
373K.
CaSO4.2H2O CaSO4.1/2H2O + 11/2H2O
On treatment with water it is again converted into gypsum and sets as a hard mass.
CaSO4.1/2H2O+11/2H2OCaSO4.2H2O
Uses:-
1. It is used by doctors for setting fractured bones.
2. It is used for making statues, models and other decorative materials.

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