A lesson from ' The Great Horse Manure Crisis of 1894 '

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If the crises we face in our environment, the state of our medical, education and economic systems, or the discord in our governments keep you up at night, I hope you find optimism in the following story:

It’s the story of the first big global urban crisis that the world’s largest cities faced in modern times: The Great Horse Manure Crisis of 1894 (Yes, this was a real thing and that was the name of it).

By the late 1800’s London had over 50,000 horses moving cabs and buses every day. Each one produced 15 to 35 pounds of manure and 2 pints of urine daily. At the same time, New York had over 100,000 horses producing 2.5 million pounds of manure each day.

No one could figure out how to handle all this manure, and in 1894 the Times newspaper predicted based on the increase in population and horses at the time “In 50 years, every street in London will be buried under nine feet of manure.”

The crisis led to the very first International Urban Planning Conference in New York. It was abandoned after three days - instead of the scheduled ten - because none of the delegates could see any solution.

Many of today’s challenges look similarly insurmountable.Anyone looking at current trends and trying to battle the inertia, outdated policies or plain bad decisions of many bureacracies, corporations and governments can easily lose hope

So what happened to end the Great Horse Manure Crisis of 1894?

Within a matter of years, the entire crisis simply disappeared.

While officials looked unsuccessfully for solutions, Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and other inventors and entrepreneurs were creating the very first automobiles.

By 1912, there were more cars than horses in London and New York. 1917 saw the very last horse-drawn streetcar. The horses disappeared from our roads, and their poo disappeared with them.

"We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them.” ~ Albert Einstein

Of course - the age of fuel-driven vehicles has created a whole new set of problems. But today, new inventors and entrepreneurs in green energy, health, education and all areas of society are coming up with new solutions at an increasingly rapid rate.

While the old structures die, you can focus at joining the groups protesting them or you can join the groups who are already creating the new paradigms. 

“We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars.” ~ Oscar Wilde

Mission Impossible and Constructors in C++

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Mission Impossible and Constructors in C++

Every one who has seen any movie of the Mission Impossible franchise would remember the unique way of starting every mission.

You Tube link to the scene (58 seconds) :

utorial Linear Search in C++ , Programming
Code Basics, C Plus Plus
As soon as Ethan Hunt gets his retina or finger print scanned, the message automatically starts, “….your mission should you choose to accept it is to….” Remember?

Now what happens after the message is over?

The last words in the message are always – “This message will self-destruct in 5 seconds.”


A Class Constructor is a special member function of a class that is executed whenever we create new objects of that class,

Exactly like the message in the movie, which automatically starts after scanning the retina or finger print.

A constructor will have exact same name as the class and it does not have any return type at all, not even void. Constructors can be very useful for initializing the values for member variables of the class.


A destructor is a special member function of a class that is executed whenever an object of it's class goes out of scope or whenever the delete expression is applied to a pointer to the object of that class,

Exactly like the message’s self-destructio
n in the movie.

A destructor will have exact same name as the class prefixed with a tilde (~) and it can neither return a value nor can it take any parameters. Destructor can be very useful for releasing resources before coming out of the program like closing files, releasing memories etc.

Example Code:

‪#‎include‬ <cstdlib>
#include <iostream>
#include <stdio.h>

using namespace std;

class Line

void setLength( double len ); // Function 1 Declaration

double getLength( void ); // Function 2 Declaration

Line(); // This is the constructor declaration

~Line(); // This is the destructor declaration

double length;


// Member functions definitions including constructor

Line::Line(void) // Constructor Definition
cout << "Object is being created" << endl;

Line::~Line(void) // Destructor Definition
cout << "Object is being deleted" << endl;

void Line::setLength( double len ) // Function 1 Definition
length = len;

double Line::getLength( void ) // Function 2 Definition
return length;

int main()
Line line;

// set line length
line.setLength(6.0); // Funtion 1 Called

cout << "Length: " << line.getLength() <<endl; // Function 2 Called

return 0;



Object is being created
Length: 6
Object is being deleted

Tutorial Linear Search in C++ , Programming

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Linear Search in C++

Objective: To search for a particular value in an array. If the value is present then return the position of the value in the array.

linear search free c++ program tutorial for begginers
Linear Search


As the word ‘Linear’ suggests, the array will be traversed linearly; means all the elements of the array will be visited one by one in the order of their storage.
If the array is Num[5], the order of visiting the arrays elements to compare the value to be searched will be:
Num[0] -> Num[1] -> Num[2] -> Num[3] -> Num[4]


#‎include <cstdlib>
#include <iostream>
#include <stdio>

using namespace std;
int main()

int arr[100], i, n, searchValue, result=0;
//Ask for the size of array to be used
cout<<"Enter No. of Elements to be stored ";
cin>>n; // n is the total number of values that will be stored, n<=100

// Ask the user to input values, Input Loop
for(i=0;i<=n-1;i++) // Loop will be executed ‘n’ times to store ‘n’ number of values
{ cout<<"Enter the element "<<i+1<<" ";

//Ask the user the value to be searched
cout<<"\nEnter value you want to search ";

//Loop will compare the value to be searched with each element in the array one by one in each iteration, Search Loop
for(i=0; i<=n-1; i++)
if(arr[i]==searchValue) // Comparison of values
cout<<"\nValue is stored at location : "<<i+1; // Out if value is present
result=1; // Result if value is present
break; // Stop the loop execution if the value is found

cout<<"Value not available"; // Output if value is not present


Enter No. of Elements to be stored 5

Enter the element 1 8
Enter the element 2 3
Enter the element 3 6
Enter the element 4 5
Enter the element 5 9

Enter value you want to search=3
Value is stored at location : 2

Thanks @codebasics

Learn Polymorphism OOP Concepts in Agent 007 Style

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James Bonds and Polymorphism in OOP

Polymorphism = Poly (many) + Morph (Forms)

James Bond also had many forms, the character was played by many actors in different James Bond movies. They all had the same name, James Bond, Agent 007.

The word Polymorphism signifies that one element can have many forms.

In context of programing, it states that there could be multiple Functions/Methods with same name, return type and parameters/arguments.

Method Overloading

Just like in a classroom there could be multiple students with same popular name (like Ankita, Rahul), SIMILARLY, there could be multiple Functions/Methods in a program with same name [called Method Overloading].

Method Overloading = Same Name Only

Method Overriding

Now, a lot of times the last names of those with the same first names will also be the same (like Gaurav Singh), 
there could be multiple Functions/Methods in program with NOT JUST same name BUT ALSO the same Arguments/Parameters [called Method Overriding].
Method Overriding cannot be applied to a Class. Which means, there cannot be two or more functions/methods in a single Class with – same return type, name and parameters/arguments.

Method Overriding = Same Name, Same Type and Number of Parameters/Arguments

Example Code: Method Overloading
* Created on NETBEANS IDE
‪#‎include‬ <cstdlib> //IDEs include header files like this
#include <iostream> 
#include <stdio.h>

using namespace std; 

//Class definition starts
class FindArea

public: int area(int a) // Method 1

int squareArea = a*a;
return squareArea;

public: int area(int b, int c) // Method 2

int rectangleArea = b*c;
return rectangleArea;
//Class definition ends

int main ()
FindArea obj; // Object created for Class

int area1 = obj.area(10); 
// Calls Method 1 because of 1 integer in argument, matching 1st function

int area2 = obj.area(10,5); 
// Calls Method 2 because of 2 integers in argument, matching 2nd function

cout<<"Two areas are "<< area1<<" and "<<area2;


Two areas are 100 and 50

Method Overriding is a bit complex hence we will cover that separately.
If you wish to copy this program and run on your NETBEANS IDE, please retype all the double quotes (“”) for smooth execution. If you are using any other program for execution, please make small changes that may be required in that environment.

Thanks @Code Basics

The top 7 excuses on the road to success

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The top 7 excuses on the road to success:

“I’m not good enough.”

Reality: There are people not as smart, talented or experienced as you who got started and are already ahead of you.

“I don’t have the time.”

Reality: Success doesn’t come from having time. It comes from making time.

“I don’t have the money.”

Reality: You don’t need money to make money. You need a mission. Then deliver value to those who have the money.

“I don’t know the right people.”

Reality: You can change who you know and who knows you today. Start by being the kind of person you would want to know.

“It’s not the right time.”

Reality: There is always a right action in good times and bad times, which means it is always the right time.

“It’s not that easy.”

Reality: No it’s not. Which is why most people never try, and most people never reach their full potential. But you’re not most people.

“I don’t deserve it.”

Reality: Success isn’t earned by those who deserve most, but those who serve most.

What’s stopping you? Success doesn't go to those who have the most ambition, but those who have the least excuses. Excuses are the brake pedals in life, and you can’t get going if the brakes are on.

So start by replacing every excuse with action.

“Excuses are like male nipples. They’re completely useless.” ~ Don Calame

Motivation for young aspirin entrepreneurs

Easy ways to Turn a Calculator and Radio into a Metal Detector

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About a month ago my brother said that he could make a metal detector at home from just two easily-available things - A radio and a calculator without even opening them. I didn't agree with him, then. But he was right. We can  make a metal detector from a calculator and radio.

Things we need

  • A pocket calculator which produces a beep sound.
  • An AM radio
  • Some tape (to put them together)
  • A working brain

    Now follow these steps ;
  • Turn the radio on and adjust the volume to the highest level so that you can hear everything clearly. Tune the radio on the high end of its AM band but not on any broadcast station.
  • Turn the calculator on
  • Now with both the radio and the calculator turned on, move the calculator around the radio until you hear a loud sound.
  • Keep them at the position where you hear a loud sound and stitch together with the help of tape. Maintain its position and make sure that they don't move apart.

    Now our metal detector is ready to buzz around metals

    Trying it out
    Bring the metal detector (the combination we got in the last step) near any type of metal. The calculator will start beeping. It will start beeping faster when it's brought nearer to the metal.

    Why it works the way it does?
    The loud tone coming from the radio is the calculator's electronic circuit producing a radio frequency signal. That being said, the radio waves from the calculator reflect off the spoon and are heard on the AM radio.

    So, now you have a metal detector that's made at home. Enjoy it and have fun.
    Reply below if you've any doubt or if something is wrong in my tutorial.
  • Thanks Asad

    [A - Z ] Where do mangoes grow , Everything for you to Learn about MANGO

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    I know more about growing mangoes than I'd like to. I live in a mango growing region (Darbhanga ) ... All my friends grow mango trees commercially!

    This post will elaborating everything about Mango i.e. where do mangoes grow ,  where do mango's come from , do mangoes grow on trees , how do you grow a mango tree , how do you plant and grow mango trees with seeds , how big do mango trees grow .

    Whether I like it or not, I do get suckered into helping out when extra hands are needed on deck...
    Actually, it's not that bad. The reason so many people I know grow mangoes is that mango trees are extremely easy to grow and manage.

    In the right climate growing mangoes takes no effort or attention at all. Through my friends I can get all the mangoes I want for free, and then some. But I still grow mango in my own garden, about a dozen different varieties.

    Mangoes come in different colours and sizes, have different flavours, and they ripen at slightly different times. growing mango trees from cuttings

    Growing different mango tree varieties keeps things interesting, but most importantly it stretches out the harvest time of this feast or famine fruit. You can eat fresh mango for a few months instead of only a few weeks! 

    Mango Fun Facts

    • Mangos are one of the most popular fruit in the World
    • Mangos were first grown in India over 5,000 years ago
    • Mango seeds traveled with humans from Asia to the Middle East, East Africa and South America beginning around 300 or 400 A.D.
    • The paisley pattern, developed in India, is based on the shape of a mango.mango fruit
    •  mango tree information for kids
    • anthracnose disease of mango
    • A basket of mangos is considered a gesture of friendship in India
    • Legend says that Buddha meditated under the cool shade of a mango tree
    • Mangos are related to cashews and pistachios
    • A mango tree can grow as tall as 100 feet
    • The bark, leaves, skin and pit of the mango have been used in folk remedies for centuries

    Mango Selection and Ripening

    • Don’t judge a mango by its color – red does not mean ripe
    • Squeeze gently to judge ripeness
    • A ripe mango will “give” slightly and a firm mango will ripen at room temperature over a few days
    • how to take care of mango plant
    • To speed up ripening, place mangos in a paper bag at room temperature
    • Once ripe, mangos can be moved to the refrigerator to slow down ripening for several days.

    How Do You Grow a Mango Tree?

    Mango trees (Mangifera indica) are deep-rooted plants that may become large specimens in the landscape. They are evergreen and generally produced off rootstocks that increase the hardiness of the plants. Mango trees begin fruit production in three years and form fruit quickly.
    Choose a variety that is best suited for your zone. The plant can thrive in almost any soil but requires well-drained soil in a site with protection from cold. Position your tree where it will receive full sun for best fruit production.
    New mango tree planting is done in late winter to early spring when the plant is not actively growing.

    The mango is a very attractive, evergreen tree with glossy, dense foliage. The new shoots are reddish, the mature leaves a dark green.

    Depending on the variety mango trees can grow huge to 35 m and 15 m across for seedling trees of older varieties. But you can keep a mango tree small by pruning it regularly.

    A mango tree in full flower is a sight to behold. The large pink panicles are at the ends of the branches and cover the whole tree. Oh, and they smell good, too!

    Mangoes are generally sweet, although the taste and texture of the flesh varies across cultivars; some have a soft, pulpy texture similar to an overripe plum, while others are firmer, like a cantaloupe or avocado, and some may have a fibrous texture. The skin of unripe, pickled, or cooked mango can be consumed, but has the potential to cause contact dermatitis of the lips, gingiva, or tongue in susceptible people.

    Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
    250 kJ (60 kcal)

    15 g
    Dietary fiber
    1.6 g

    0.38 g

    0.82 g

    Vitamin A equiv.
    lutein zeaxanthin
    54 μg
    640 μg
    23 μg
    Thiamine (B1)
    0.028 mg
    Riboflavin (B2)
    0.038 mg
    Niacin (B3)
    0.669 mg
    Pantothenic acid (B5)
    0.197 mg
    Vitamin B6
    0.119 mg
    Folate (B9)
    43 μg
    7.6 mg
    Vitamin C
    36.4 mg
    Vitamin E
    0.9 mg
    Vitamin K
    4.2 μg

    11 mg
    0.16 mg
    10 mg
    0.063 mg
    14 mg
    168 mg
    1 mg
    0.09 mg

    • Units
    • μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams
    • IU = International units
    Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
    Source: USDA Nutrient Database

    The mango is the national fruit of India,Pakistan, and the Philippines. It is also the national tree of Bangladesh.In India, harvest and sale of mangoes is during March–May and this is annually covered by news agencies.

    The Mughal emperor Akbar (1556–1605 AD) is said to have planted a mango orchard having 100,000 trees in Darbhanga, eastern India. The Jain goddess Ambika is traditionally represented as sitting under a mango tree. 

    In Hinduism, the perfectly ripe mango is often held by Lord Ganesha as a symbol of attainment, regarding the devotees' potential perfection. Mango blossoms are also used in the worship of the goddess Saraswati. No Telugu/Kannada New Year's Day called Ugadi passes without eating ugadi pachadi made with mango pieces as one of the ingredients.

    Dried mango skin and its seeds are also used in Ayurvedic medicines.Mango leaves are used to decorate archways and doors in Indian houses and during weddings and celebrations such as Ganesh Chaturthi. Mango motifs and paisleys are widely used in different Indian embroidery styles, and are found in Kashmiri shawls, Kanchipuram silk sarees, etc. Paisleys are also common to Iranian art, because of its pre-Islamic Zoroastrian past.

    In Tamil Nadu, the mango is referred to as one of the three royal fruits, along with banana and jackfruit, for their sweetness and flavor.This triad of fruits is referred to as ma-pala-vazhai

    Getting started with growing mangoes

    There are two ways to get started: you can buy mango trees at a nursery or you can grow your own from seed. The seed grown trees will take a lot longer to bear fruit. (Unless you know how to graft them or know someone who does.)

    Mango trees that were grown in a nursery are usually grafted and should fruit within three to four years. Seedling trees may take five to eight years.

    Seedling mango trees grow much bigger and stronger than the nursery trees and have an indestructible root system. Grafted trees are of a more manageable size. Another advantage is that you know you will get a reliably bearing tree. If you grow mango from seed you need to know exactly which tree your mango seed came from or you won't know what you are getting until eight years later..

    If you buy mango trees in a nursery I suggest you don't look just for size and colour. Have you ever tasted the variety you are about to buy? Some mangoes taste awful... True. Some of the commercial varieties are bred for shelf life, size and looks, but are barely edible. (Yes, I am totally spoiled when it comes to mangoes.) So, know the variety you buy!

    Secondly, if you plan to grow more than one mango tree, find out if it is an early or late fruiting variety. Don't buy three trees that all fruit at the same time.

    Thirdly, if you live in a cooler, subtropical area, make sure you get a variety that flowers well in those conditions. All mangoes will grow if your climate is frost free, but flowering habits depend on temperature and vary. And without flowers there will be little fruit...

    And last but not least, especially if you live in an area where it may rain during the cooler time of the year, you should also look for a variety that shows good resistance to the mango disease anthracnose. (More on that below.)

    Growing mango trees from seed

    Growing mangoes from seed is actually quite easy. (All the seeds of the mangoes I eat, dry and freeze are thrown out in the garden as mulch, and they all grow...)

    The most important step is the seed selection! If you take any old shop bought seed it may not grow true to type. The seed needs to come from what is called a "polyembryonic" variety.
    What that means is that the seed will sprout several identical trees. And those seedling trees will be identical to the parent tree. They are clones.

    Ideally you know the parent tree, it's from your area, grows really well and gets a bumper crop every year! If not, oh well. Get seed from a polyembryonic variety and at least you know that the fruit you harvest will taste the same.

    (The most common commercial variety in Australia, the Kensington Pride—also known as Bowen-—is polyembrionic. It's also a vigorous tree and usually fruits reliably, so it is well suited for seed growing.

    If anyone knows a good variety to recommend to US readers, please let me know.)
    The best time to grow mangoes from seed is the beginning of the wet season (beginning of summer).

    Eat a nice mango, remove as much flesh from the seed as possible and then let it dry for a day or two.
    To germinate the mango seed you could just put the whole thing in a warm, moist place and wait for it to sprout. Then cut off all the seedlings except for one. (The smallest supposedly gives you the best fruit.)

    Or, if you prefer to fuss over them (or if you have only one seed but want half a dozen trees) then you can carefully cut a corner of the fibrous big seed. Cut only just deep enough so you can see the two halves of the seed, and then break it open.
    Inside you find several small bean shaped seeds. Hopefully they are white and not all grey or brown and shrivelled...

    You can plant those mango seeds individually. They should take about ten days to sprout. I like to sprout my seeds right where they are to grow. That way I don't need to worry about hardening them off (getting a shade grown seedling used to full sun) or about transplanting shock. If you are worried about the little thing getting eaten, uprooted or trampled you can always put a barrier around it.
    If you prefer to first grow your mango tree in a pot, follow the instructions for nursery trees when it comes to planting time:

    Planting a mango tree

    You plant a mango tree just like you plant any other fruit tree, so I won't go into specifics here. (A page about planting fruit trees is coming soon.)

    The best time to plant your mango tree is the beginning of the wet season (summer).
    Make sure you select a place in full sun. (And make triple sure you really want a big tree there!)
    The tree needs to be sun hardened. If your mango tree was grown in a shade house, gradually get it used to the sun first. Then dig a big enough hole. Carefully separate tree and pot without disturbing the roots. Put tree in hole, fill in, water.