– Group of first terrestrial plants having vascular tissue viz. Xylem & Phloem.

– True stem, root & leaf.

– Found on damp, shady places.

– Sporophyte makes main plant body.

Sporophyllsof Sporophyte bear sporangia (sori) onventral side producing haploid spores.

-spores give rise to Prothallus which is leafy & autotrophic.

– Prothallus bears sex organs – male – Antheridium and female-Archegonium.

– Fertilisation leads into zygote formation which produces diploid Sporophyte.


Heterospory and Seed habit:

– Two types of spores Microspore and Megaspore are produced in some members viz. Selaginella, Salvinia. – called Heterospory.

– Heterospory is considered as begining of seed habit in terrestrial plants.

– eg. Pteris, Dryopteris etc.


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