Physical World And Measurement

There are four fundamental forces which govern both macroscopic and microscopic phenomena. There are

(i) Gravitational force

(iii)Electromagnetic force

(ii) Nuclear force

(iv) Weak force

The relative strengths of these forces are

Fg :Fw:Fe:Fs=1:1025:1036:1038 .

All those quantities which can be measured directly or indirectly and in terms of

which the laws of physics can be expressed are called physical quantities.

(a) Fundamental quantities (b) Derived quantities.

The units of the fundamental quantities called fundamental units , and the units of derived quantities called derived units.

System of units:-

(a) MKS (b) CGS (c) FPS (d) SI

The dimensions of a physical quantity are the powers to which the fundamental quantities are raised to represent that physical quantity.

The equation which expresses a physical quantity in terms of the fundamental units of mass, length and time, is called dimensional equation.

According to this principle of homogeneity a physical equation will be dimensionally correct if the dimensions of all the terms in the all the terms occurring on both sides of the equation are the same.

If any equation is dimensionally correct it is not necessary that must be mathematically correct too.

There are three main uses of the dimensional analysis-

(a) To convert a unit of given physical quantities from one system of units to another system for which we use

n2 = n1[M1/M2]a[L1/L2]b[T1/T2]c

(b) To check the correctness of a given physical relation.

(c) To derive a relationship between different physical quantities

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