You are provided with a mixture containing sand, iron filings, ammonium chloride and sodium chloride. Describe the procedures you would use to separate these constituents from the mixture?
Answer: The given mixture can be separated using the following process.
Magnetic Separation: Using magnetic separation the iron fillings can be separated from the given mixture. In this a magnet is hover just above the mixture,
since iron is a magnetic substance it is attracted by magnet and stuck with it. By this first of all iron fillings are separated.
Sublimation: After the separation of iron fillings, ammonium chloride is separated by the process of sublimation. Since, ammonium chloride is a sublimate and it
turns into vapour directly without changing into liquid, thus when the mixture is sublimated, the ammonium chloride is deposited over the inner wall
of funnel leaving the sodium chloride and sand in
the watch glass.
Ammonium chloride is separated by scratching from the inner wall of the funnel.
Filtration: Now the left mixture of sand and sodium chloride is put in water, after stirring the sodium chloride is dissolved in water. The solution is separated by the process of filtration. The sand left
over the filter paper is separated out.
Vapourisation: By the process vaporization, the liquid so obtained is vapouried and crystals of ammonium chloride can be obtained.
Hence, by using the methods of magnetic separation, sublimation, filteration and vapourisation and crystallisation the component of given mixture of sand, iron fillings, ammonium chloride and sodium chloride can be separated.